R ice is the seed of the grass species Oryza glaberrima (African rice). As a cereal
grain , it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the
world’s human population. Rice, a monocot, is normally grown as an annual
plant , although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon
crop for up to 30 years. The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields
while, or after, setting the young seedlings. This simple method requires sound
planning and servicing of the water drainage and channels
Cultivated rice is extremely sensitive to water shortages. To ensure sufficient water,
most rice farmers aim to maintain flooded conditions in their field. This is especially
true for lowland rice. Good water management in lowland rice focuses on practices
that conserve water while ensuring sufficient water for the crop.